A-F

Aerosol
A suspension of small liquid or solid particles in a gas. For example, electronic vapour products produce an aerosol from e-liquid.

AMES assay
An in vitro experiment which can be used to assess the mutagenicity of a substance in bacteria.

Atomiser
An assembly of coil and wicking material to which power is supplied, and which heats an e‐liquid to form an aerosol

Biomarker of effect
Measurable constituents that are biological indicators of the body’s response to exposure, rather than of the exposure itself.

Biomarkers of exposure
Measurable constituents resulting from exposure to a substance, e.g. tobacco cigarette smoke.  This may be the substance itself or a metabolic breakdown product (“metabolite”) of the substance.

Blend
A mixture of different types of tobacco.  All commercial cigarettes contain tobacco blends which can include a number of other minor components such as ingredients. The different blends gives different brands of tobacco cigarettes their own distinctive style.

Butt length
The length of unburnt cigarette remaining once smoking is finished.  When using a smoking machine method, this length is determined prior to testing.

Cambridge filter pad
These are commercially available glass fiber filter pads that are used to collect samples of smoke constituents in smoking machines.

Canadian intense
A machine smoking regime adopted by Health Canada in 1999 with a 55ml puff volume, 2s puff duration, 30s puff interval and with 100% blocking of the filter ventilation. This is also known at the Health Canada Intense Smoking Regime (HCI).

Carbon monoxide (CO)
A constituent of cigarette smoke, formed during incomplete combustion of organic substances.

CEN (European Committee for Standardization)
The European Committee for Standardization, is an association that brings together the National Standardization Bodies of 34 European countries. CEN provides a platform for the development of European Standards and other technical documents in relation to various kinds of products, materials, services and processes.

Charcoal filter.  A filter containing activated charcoal.  The activated charcoal has a high surface area and porosity, which makes it adsorb smoke constituents efficiently

Cigarette machine yield
The amount of aerosol collected by a smoking machine from a cigarette under a specified smoking regime.

Cigarette smoke
The emissions produced when a cigarette is burned.  This can be subdivided into two parts: mainstream smoke, which is inhaled by the smoker, and sidestream smoke which is generated by the burning end of the cigarette.

Combustion modifiers
These can be used to reduce the speed at which a cigarette paper burns, for example, citric acid.

Compensation
The change in a consumers smoking behaviour that may occur in response to using a different product.

CORESTA
CORESTA  "Centre de Coopération pour les Recherches Scientifiques Relatives au Tabac" (Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco).  CORESTA is an association whose purpose is to promote international cooperation and best practice in scientific research relative to tobacco.

CORESTA Recommended Methods (CRMs)
Standardised analytical methods as developed by the CORESTA organisation.

CORESTA Unit
A Coresta unit is a measure of cigarette paper permeability, defined as the flow (cm3 min-1) passing through a 1 cm2  sample of test material at an applied pressure of 1.00 kPa.

Cotinine
A metabolite of nicotine, sometimes used as a biomarker of exposure to nicotine.

Curing
The process of drying freshly harvested tobacco leaves for use in tobacco products.  There are different methods of curing which affect the characteristics of the dried leaf.  These different types include air-curing, flue-curing, fire-curing and sun-curing.

Dose
The amount of a substance received by a biological system e.g. the body, during exposure.

Dose response
The associated biological response related to the dose of a substance over time i.e. the larger the dose, the greater the effect.

DPM (Dry particulate matter)
Total particulate matter after deduction of its water content, expressed as milligrams per cigarette.

E-liquid
The liquid contained in, or added to an electronic vapour product, which may or may not contain nicotine, carriers such as propylene glycol or glycerol, and/or additives, intended for transformation into an aerosol by an electronic cigarette.

Emissions
The aerosol produced when a product is used. Emissions may refer to the total aerosol or to individual components of it.

Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems.

ETS
Environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS, is the aged and diluted combination of the smoke that rises from the lit end of a cigarette and the smoke exhaled by the smoker.

Expanded tobacco
Tobacco which has been processed to expand its volume. These processes include INCOM, IMPEX or DIET, which respectively use nitrogen, isopantene or carbon dioxide as pressuring gas.

Filter Analysis
A method for measuring the amount of smoke (or smoke constituents) retained by cigarette filters.

Filter Ventilation
Small cuts in the material around the filter of a cigarette which allow air to pass through when a smoker inhales

Flavourings
In some brands and brand variants ingredients commonly used in food may be used in very small amounts to give each product a distinctive flavour characteristic or aroma. This enables us to provide a wide choice of brand variants, in line with consumer preferences

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
US government body that is responsible for ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of products.  Within the FDA, the Centre for Tobacco Products is responsible for tobacco and tobacco-related products.

Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) 
An international under the World Health Organization that proposes measures for the control and regulation of tobacco products.

G-L

Gene
A specific sequence of DNA that codes for a protein (e.g. such as an enzyme).

Gene Expression
The process whereby a gene is activated and translated into the protein it codes for.

Genome
The entire genetic make up of a person or organism.

Harm Reduction
The concept of reducing the harm associated with a risk taking behaviour without abstinence. In relation to tobacco, harm reduction is the provision of less harmful alternatives to adult smokers unwilling or unable to quit, who would otherwise continue smoking tobacco.

Harmful or Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs)
Chemicals or chemical compounds in tobacco products or tobacco smoke that cause or could cause harm to smokers or nonsmokers.  This list of compounds is defined by the FDA.

Heated Tobacco
A product that uses a heating element to generate an aerosol from tobacco.

Hoffmann analytes
A series of tobacco smoke constituents, most with toxicological relevance, listed by the scientist Dietrich Hoffmann and co-workers at the American Health Foundation.

Humectants
Ingredients added to regulate the moisture content. For tobacco, these are most commonly glycerol and propylene glycol.

Ingredient
An ingredient is a substance added to the consumable part of our product. For instance, in cigarettes, this refers to substances added to the tobacco, as well as in any non-tobacco materials used to make our product, which remain in the finished product after manufacture. Non-tobacco materials include the cigarette paper, the filter, the adhesive that seals the paper, and the ink that colours the paper that wraps around the filter.

Institute for In Vitro Sciences (IIVS)
An internationally recognised leader in in vitro testing, they couple scientific and compliance programs with other initiatives to develop and promote validated methods worldwide.

In vitro
Biological studies conducted in a test tube.

In vivo
Biological studies conducted in a living body.

ISO
International Organization for Standardization . An international network of national bodies covering standardisation in all fields except electrical and electronic engineering standards.  ISO is the world’s largest non-governmental system for voluntary industrial and technical collaboration at the international level, and co-ordinates the exchange of information on international and national standards.

ISO Smoking Regime
An internationally validated and accepted machine-based method for generating cigarette smoke under controlled conditions (e.g. defined air-flow, ambient temperatures and humidities). ISO puffing conditions are a 35cm3 puff volume, a 2 second puff duration; and a puff frequency of once per minute; with smoking continuing to a fixed length from the tipping paper or filter (butt length).

ISO/TC 126
The ISO’s Technical Committee responsible for the standardization of terminology and test methods used for unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco products, materials used in the manufacture of tobacco products, and tobacco smoke.

ISO 17025
ISO/IEC 17025:2005 is a standard which specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and/or calibrations, including sampling. It covers testing and calibration performed using standard methods, non-standard methods, and laboratory-developed methods. Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies may also use it in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories. 

Laboratory Accreditation
The formal recognition of an organization's technical competency to perform specific tests or calibrations. Accredited laboratories must participate in proficiency testing on a regular basis to demonstrate their competence and maintain their accreditation. The general requirements for laboratory accreditation are contained in ISO/IEC 17025.

Low Ignition Propensity (LIP) 
Low Ignition Propensity (LIP) cigarettes are designed to self-extinguish to reduce the risk of accidental fires when left unattended, in line with country-specific regulation.

M-R

Mainstream Smoke
All smoke which leaves the butt end of a cigarette during the smoking process.

Metabolite
A biological breakdown product of a substance. For example, a major metabolite of nicotine is cotinine.

Method Validation
The gold standard of analytical practice. Method validation is the approach used to confirm that an analytical procedure employed for a specific test is robust, repeatable and reproducible.

NFDPM (Nicotine-Free Dry Particulate Matter)
Dry particulate matter after deduction of its nicotine content, expressed as milligrams per cigarette.

Nicotine
The major natural alkaloid in tobacco. The Nicotine yield in cigarette smoke is often expressed as milligrams of nicotine per cigarette as measured under machine smoking – see, for example, ISO Smoking Regime.

NRC (National Research Council)
Is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization, which produces technical reports that aim to shape policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science, engineering, and medicine in the USA.

Particulate Phase
The fine, solid particles in an aerosol. During smoke analyses, this can be collected on a Cambridge Filter Pad.

Petri Dish
A shallow circular transparent dish with a loose-fitting cover over the top and sides, used for culturing bacteria and other microorganisms in a laboratory.

Plant Protection Products (PPPs)
Agrochemicals used during the farming and storage of tobacco to protect the crop from pests.

Pressure Drop
The static pressure difference across the cigarette when it is traversed by an air flow under steady conditions, as defined by ISO standard 6565:2002.

Product Features
The components used to make a technical feature in a finished product.

Puff Duration
The time during which air is being drawn through the product, for example during machine smoking.

Puff Frequency
The number of puffs taken in a given period of time under a standardised smoking regime.

Puff Interval
The time between puffs in a standardised smoking regime.

Puff Number
The number of puffs necessary to smoke a cigarette to a specified butt length in a standardised smoking regime.

Puff Profile
The flow rate measured directly behind the mouth end of a cigarette and depicted graphically as a function of time

Puff Volume
The volume leaving the mouth end of a cigarette and passing through the smoke trap.

Reconstituted Tobacco
Made from processed cut or ground tobacco, it is used as a method of waste reduction, and maintianing product quality. Used in many products currently on the market, including conventional cigarettes.

Retention
The amount of aerosol or specific constituents retained in the body. It is the difference between the amount of aerosol inhaled and exhaled. 

S-Z

Sidestream Smoke.
All the smoke which leaves a cigarette during the smoking process other than from the mouth end.

Smokeless Tobacco Products
Non-combustible tobacco products, for example oral tobacco products such as snus.

Smoke Constituent
An individual chemical present in cigarette smoke.

Smoking Machine
A mechanical device on which cigarettes are smoked under standardised smoking conditions.

Smoking Regime
Internationally validated parameters under which a product is smoked (e.g. puff volume, puff duration and puff frequency) adopted for smoking tobacco products such as cigarettes by machine.

Snus
A type of oral smokeless tobacco products, traditionally used in Scandinavia.  The products are usually placed between upper lip and gum and are available in both loose and in individually portioned sachets.

Tar
A mixture of many different constituents, more correctly known as NFDPM (Nicotine-Free, Dry Particulate Matter), tar is the TPM (total particulate matter) after deduction of its nicotine and water content, expressed as milligrams per cigarette.

Tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs)
Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines are chemical compounds found in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Common examples are 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N’-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), and N’-nitrosoanabasine (NAB).

Total particulate matter (TPM)
The portion of the mainstream smoke which is trapped in the smoke trap, expressed as milligrams per cigarette.

Toxicant
A toxic substance introduced into the environment.

Vaping / Vaper
Common terms for the user/ the act of using an electronic vapour product.

Vapour phase
This is the portion of aerosol which passes through a Cambridge Filter Pad when a product is tested on a smoking machine, for example, carbon monoxide.